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Java

Die Erstellung einer Anwendung für verschiedene Endgeräte, bedingt die Berücksichtigung der Zielplattform. Unter den zur Zeit verfügbaren Geräten und deren Betriebssystemen hat sich noch kein einheitlicher Standard herauskristallisiert. Deshalb ist es unerlässlich eine plattformunabhängige Sprache wie Java für die Applikationsentwicklung zu nutzen.

 

Ein weiterer Vorteil ist eine durchgängige Verfügbarkeit auf unterschiedlichen Entwicklungsplattformen für mobile Endgeräte, Desktops sowie Großrechnersysteme. Wird auf der Serverseite eine Applikation Servertechnologie eingesetzt, kann auch hier die Programmierung in Java erfolgen und es entsteht kein Bruch im Entwicklungsprozeß.

 

 

 

J2ME (Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition)

 

Die J2ME ist eine standardisierte Java-Plattform für mobile Endgeräte, die von SUN zur Verfügung gestellt wird. Die J2ME besitzt eine virtuelle Java-Maschine, die für eine Vielzahl von Betriebssystemen verfügbar ist. Die Auswahl der Klassen ist auf die Erfordernisse der mobilen Geräte angepasst und eingeschränkt. Die gesamte Umgebung ist somit kleiner und für den Einsatz auf spärlicher ausgestatteten Endgeräten abgestimmt. Dieser Vorteil erschwert jedoch die Entwicklung der Anwendungen, da nicht alle gewohnten Klassen zur Verfügung stehen. Hier unterstützt Sie jtom.

 

J2ME-Client

 

Für unterschiedlichste Endgeräte sind JVMs (Java Virtual Machines) erhältlich. Die erstellten Java-Programme sind folglich auf jeder Plattform lauffähig, müssen ggf. allerdings konvertiert werden. Ein solcher Konvertierungsvorgang ist z.B. für die MIDP-Implementierung unter PalmOS notwendig.

 

Für den Ablauf der Java-Programme muss die virtuelle Java-Maschine und das Java-Programm installiert werden. Dadurch treten dieselben Probleme bezüglich der Softwareverteilung auf, die bereits aus der Desktopentwicklung bekannt sind.

 

Durch den J2ME-Client gibt es die Möglichkeit Daten persistent auf dem Endgerät abzulegen. Außerdem kann auf weitere Peripheriegeräte (z.B. ein Scanner) über das Java-Programm zugegriffen werden. Dieses ist allerdings nur eingeschränkt möglich und u.U. müssen dazu plattformabhängige Klassen verwendet werden.

 

MIDlet-Technologie

 

Mit der MIDlet-Technologie wird das Problem der Softwareverteilung von J2ME-Programmen behoben. Ein MIDlet kann - ähnlich wie ein Java-Applet - in eine WAP/WML-Seite eingebunden werden. Es wird nur einmal aus dem Netz zur Installation geladen und lokal abgelegt. Durch das Einbetten eines J2ME-Programms in eine WAP/WML-Seite können auf einfachste Weise neue Systeme dem Benutzer zur Verfügung gestellt werden. Dazu wird nur ein entsprechender WAP/WML-Browser benötigt, der eine sogenannte OTA (Over The Air) implementiert hat.

 

Es gibt aber noch weitere Möglichkeiten MIDlets zu verteilen. Aktuelle Mobiltelefone erlauben unter anderem auch das Installieren von MIDlets durch das Versenden einer entsprechenden SMS. In der SMS wird der Link angegeben und durch das Bestätigen des Empfängers das entsprechende Programm auf dem Handy installiert. Einfacher geht es kaum noch.